Using Galileo to Study Astronomy, Math, History and Physics

Galileo Graphic

In light of my discovery that a significant amount of Astrophysicists have dyslexia, I decided to start our year studying Galileo. Of course you don’t have to have dyslexia to study Galileo, nor do you have to have dyslexia to use this lesson block.

This block can also be adapted to any age, many of the books we loved most were picture books that really glossed over the inquisition, and watching the night sky is fun for any age!

Galileo is really the perfect person to use to study moon phases. And September is a great time to study the moon because it is usually clear, and the temperature is perfect for spending evenings outside.

(One of the great things about homeschooling, is it really doesn’t matter how late it is when the moon comes out!)

Here’s an outline of our block on Galileo, and how, by chosing one larger topic, we are able to learn a number of subjects.

Who was Galileo?

We began by reading books on Galileo to familiarize ourselves with who he was, and what made him tick. For fun we also included the book How They Croaked, because boys love gruesome! We also watched a video to create a deeper understanding by incorporating the visual. (I will include a reading list at the end of the post.)

Using a telescope

We learned that Galileo invented the telescope as we know it today,  and in turn, invented the microscope as well.

We decided to use the telescope the same way Galileo did, we observed the moon, and made drawings of what we saw. It was fun, and a little creepy, to do this outside at night, just as Galileo did.

Creating a Calendar

We choose to create a calendar that would outline the moon phases so we could see if our observations through our telescope matched the recorded, and expected moon phases. This can be done with the naked eye, you do not need a telescope.

In creating the calendar we incorporated the mathematic principles of columns and rows, and using measurements and division.

In order to create a calendar we had to decide how to divide a piece of paper to have even columns and rows. 

We then needed to use a ruler to make our measurements, and then use it again to draw our straight lines.

Then we choose to write our dates in the first row only, so we could practice our +7 addition facts going down the column.

Because this was the month of September, we also took this opportunity to learn the rhyme:

30 days pass September;
April, June and November.

We will continue to create a calendar at the beginning of every month.

History

Galileo lived during a very important time in history. We took this opportunity to talk about the Renaissance and other famous people and advancements made during this time.

He also lived during the Inquisition, a dark time in the history of the Catholic Church. We talked about why this happened, and the consequences it had on the advancement of science.

This was also a good time to briefly discuss Aristotle and Copernicus. As Galileo debunked many of Aristotle’s theories, and attempted to uphold Copernicus.

We also had the opportunity to talk a little bit about Pisa, Venice, Rome and Padua. All places that Galileo lived at one time or another.

Physics

Galileo was the first scientist to debunk Aristotle’s statement that objects fell at varying speeds based on their weight.

Galileo discovered that objects fell at the same rate regardless of their weight, and demonstrated this by dropping a cannon ball and a musket ball from the top of the bell tower we know as the Leaning Tower of Pisa.

Astronomy

Galileo made many discoveries that were worthy of learning about. Of course most importantly, and all of them fall under the umbrella, of proving that the earth, and all of the planets revolve around the sun.

This of course was against the Catholic church’s belief that the Earth was the center of the universe and all planets revolved around it.

Galileo was the first person to identify Jupiter’s four moons, and in order to impress the Medici family, he named the moons after the four Medici sons.

Biology

As the inventor of the first microscope, Galileo was the first to make drawings of insects and discovered the beauty of the natural world on a miniature scale.

 

Learning about Galileo has been enlightening and fun. We have been inspired to recreate some of his experiments, and have had a renewed interest in the night sky.

What I love about learning this way, is it has sparked many spontaneous and random conversations about The Inquisition, the planets, and history in general.

We are really enjoying our time delving deeper into this subject, and based on what interests us most, we will choose our next victim!

Books:

Galileo’s Leaning Tower Experiment by Wendy Macdonald

galileo leaning tower

I, Galileo by Bonnie Christensen

i, galileo

How They Croaked by Georgia Bragg and Kevin O’Malley

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Books on the Moon and Planets:

Jump into Science: Moon by Steve Tomecek

moon book

 

13 Planets: The LAtest View of the Solar System by David Aguilar

13 planets

 

The Moon: Astronaut Travel Guides

moon astronaut travel guides

 

Boy, Were we wrong about the Solar System! by Kathleen Kudlinski

boy were we wrong solar system

 

Fly Guy Presents Space by Tedd Arnold

fly guy space

 

Two GREAT videos. I am a big fan of using videos with Isaiah. He seems to retain things so much more when we utilize every aspect of his senses.

Start Smart Science; I need to Know All About the Moon – I could not find this on Amazon, I got this video from my Library and highly recommend it!

Astronomy with Bill Nye This is another video to get from the Library, it is made by Discovery School, and you shouldn’t have a problem finding it. It covers many of the issues that you will find yourself discussion as part of your Galileo lesson.

 

Books we found that were not so great:
Galileo, ( his life and ideas) for Kids by Richard Panchyk (way too involved and intense)
Who Was Galileo? by Patricia Brennan Demuth (also, way too wordy)
Starry Messenger by Peter Sis (The pictures are super complicated, the text is way too basic)

I would love to hear how you used Galileo to explore your homeschool studies!

 

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Sensory Spelling and Modeling Beeswax

We’ve really been jumping all over the place here.  I don’t know about you.

Even though I had the curriculum all ironed out, I just never know what will happen as I start a new school year.

Isaiah is a person. And as a person his likes and dislikes change. What works for him changes. And to be honest, I don’t do well with change.

And so I went back to what I know works, and we started a Waldorf spelling block. I’m adding it in twice a week. We have never done “spelling” per se so I am starting from the beginning with the first 100 of the High Utility 500 words.

And since this is Waldorf,

waldorf spelling

 

The beauty of Waldorf is they did Sensory work, before Sensory was cool.

We pulled out the box of modeling beeswax.

I have to say I really missed the modeling beeswax, and I didn’t realize how much until we started using it.

You can’t get anymore sensory integrated than having to wait patiently as the beeswax warms in your hands, as it warms you begin to smell that light comforting smell that is uniquely beeswax. Slowly you begin rolling it in your hands, it warms more and becomes more and more malleable until it’s ready to use.

The whole process is so integrated with the senses that it has a very calming effect. The key is getting your child there.

Isaiah is impatient. And at first refused to take the time to grab a lump and let it warm up.

So I grabbed a lump and worked on it as I walked around the room.

When I came back I found him working carefully on his own beeswax project. Even he couldn’t resist that feeling. It also speaks to just doing it, and waiting for your child to follow. Don’t press, just do.

 

Working in beeswax is completely unique and inviting. It responds so well to your directions. Even the artistically challenged can make something look like what they (I) want.

spelling modeling beeswax waldorf

 

The road became clear to me when yesterday I asked him to spell “the” as we were driving home from his allergy shots.

His response? “We don’t do spelling mom.” and then after some negotiating “th”.

I found this odd, I know he can read that word just fine. But clearly the idea of spelling was foreign to him. You have to start somewhere, right? Immediately I realized Waldorf’s method of learning to spell was going to be the right answer for us.

So today, I handed him my warmed up red and asked him to spell “of.”spelling with modeling beeswax

At first he resisted, but then he formed the letters carefully and put them in front of me.

We continued through the first 9 words of the first 100. And amazingly, even though he couldn’t spell them as we drove down the street, he had no problem modeling them out of beeswax.

Score 1 for Waldorf, or more like 100!

Of course I am nothing if not a crazy, whatever method works for you, homeschooling mom. And so this happened too.

spelling modeling beeswax unschooling

 

Here are some tips for Waldorf – Sensory Spelling.

Modeling Beeswax, slowly warm and then form the words.

Write the words in whatever handwriting your child enjoys using colored pencils or beeswax crayons, and then walk to the other side of the room and write it again, either the same way or a different way.

Then on his way back to you, have him walk the letters of the word he’s spelling.

Make it fun, encourage him, do it with him if he’s being resistant.

I know everything there is to know about a child who won’t do it “because.” He doesn’t need a reason to say no, me asking is usually enough. So be gentle, do it yourself at first if you need to.

I am very confident this will work for your reluctant speller!

working with modeling beeswax

 

Please feel free to ask any questions or share your ideas for sensory spelling!

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Third Grade Curriculum – September

homeschool home school curriculum

I will try to get next month up before we start, we started the last week of August. Here is an overview of what I hope to accomplish in the month of September.

Click here for an example of our schedule in google docs, please feel free to use it and then fill in the blanks.

Our school day tends to be about 4 hours long, when teaching one or two children there is no need to spend excessive time on a subject. For us this includes lunch, a snack and playtime!

home school reluctant reader

Everyday:

Read aloud from reading level appropriate reader. For us this is about 15-20 minutes depending on how goofy he’s being.

4 pages from Explode the Code ( we are in book 3)

Cursive Practice – Ask your child for a sentence from the story you read

Math U See – we are in the Alpha book, we picked up again at exactly the halfway mark. My plan is to do 1 or 2 lessons a week depending on where he gets stuck. Rushing it never helped anyone!

Literature – Folk Tales in the evening from Oak Meadow Folk Tales book 2 or 3 times a week. (I am sure you can find a folk tales book in the library and a great FREE online resource is MainLesson.com you can search the site by genre. In the fairy tales section you can find folk stories and fairy tales from other cultures, which are essentially folk tales.) We read the story in the evening, or in the afternoon. The next day I ask Isaiah to retell it to me as he draws me a picture or series of pictures that he feels relate to the story. I do not lead him or guide him at all. If he wants to change the story as long as I feel like it started somewhere with the original story I’m cool with that.
If you have not read the Grimm Fairy Tales this would also be a good time for that.

Get Outside – Every morning we try to take a walk around the block and check out what’s changing in the seasons, it is also a good time to quiet our minds and get ready for the day. I try to remind Isaiah to not chatter on, by mentioning that I hear crickets or birds, and asking questions about them.
And of course plenty of play time throughout the day!

Week 1:

Folk TalesThe Fox’s Snack, The Mighty Caterpillar and The Queen’s Gifts

Science – ( you can do this M, W, F or over 2 days – we do the rotation models one day, and the tide video a second day)

Earth’s rotation, illustrated using that old-fashioned model of a balloon slowly rotating around a lamp without a shade. Draw a little stick figure on the balloon so he understands where we are in relation to the sun during the day and evening. Although this was not a new concept for most kids, it’s fun!

The Moon – Add a smaller balloon (this is now a two person job, you can use anything small and round) to illustrate the moon rotating around the earth. I explained that the Moon is large enough to effect our oceans.

Tides – There is no easier way to explain the tides than to watch a movie about. I recommend The Blue Planet – Tidal Seas. (I picked it up at the library) also The Magic School Bus Goes to Mussel Beach

Social Studies – (This year we are studying the Old Testament and Ancient Cultures) Read the story of The Garden of Eden and Cain and Abel (two separate days that should alternate with Folk Tales). (Once again a great resource for these stories are on Main Lesson.com  Hurlbut’s Story of the Bible)

 

Week 2:

Folk Tales: Jesper the Herder of Hares, The Faithful Friends (the musicians of Bremen),  and Prince Hyacinth

Science: How Plants Make Food – The Magic School Bus Gets Planted also Pushing and Pulling with balloon rockets.

Social Studies: Noah’s Ark and The Tower of Babel both of these present great opportunities for crafts and drawing.

 

Week 3:

Folk Tales: Rapunzel, The Gardener’s Son and The Pot of Honey

Science: Evaporation – place dishes with the same amount of water all over, and measure evaporation, talk about why it evaporated more in certain places.
The Magic School Bus – Wet All Over
Water Bead Fun!

Social Studies: This week we will spend the whole time reading about Abram’s journey and His choices.

 

Week 4:

Folk Tales: The Six Travellers, The Goat Eared Emperor, and Brother and Sister

Science: Salt Crystal Trees (this is a big project so we’re going to stick to one)

Social Studies: Continue our reading on Abram and how he becomes Abraham.

 

home school waldorf learn hebrew

 

Extra Stuff: Trips to the museum, so we may skip a day here or there. Learning Hebrew! And visiting some home bound relatives to brighten their days!

Remember! Each of those weeks includes the everyday list. Some weeks we don’t do science so intensely because for us science is a lot of everyday being outside. Also I embellish a lot as I go along, and will be writing about that weekly. So if you want to keep up with what we are doing, remember to hit the subscribe by email button!

 

 

home school curriculum third grade

 

It’s Math His Way

IMG_0725I love my boy so much. I love him, but sometimes teaching him is H-A-R-D impossible. The funny thing is, he’s pretty good at math, he just wants to do it his way. So, on the day that we were going to work on Roman Numerals he decided to do it his way.

Sometimes I even let my brains listen through the frustration. This time it was a good thing. We had the mancala beads out to learn odds and evens (we’ll get to that soon) the little dude said “I don’t want to draw Roman Numerals, I’m going to do them like this.”
IMG_0726 IMG_0727 And then when it was time to do the drawings to go with our fable – instead he said, “No I want to draw the story of King Equal.” Well, what was I going to say? No? No sweetie, you can’t draw math stories, it’s fable time now.

Dude you go for it, draw away. “Oh, and mom, can I have the gnomes while I do it?”

“Sure honey, you can have whatever you want.”IMG_0728

This Game Was Made for Waldorf, and You Too!

If ever a game was made for Waldorf it was Enchanted Forest.  I don’t think you could find a game that is more completely Waldorf than this.  The whole Game is based on Grimm’s Fairy Tales.

enchanted forest

This was wonderful, because as a homeschooling mostly Waldorf mom we had read almost all of the Grimm Fairy Tales associated with this game, and the few we hadn’t read we caught up on, to make the game more fun. This is the story of the Enchanted Forest :

“Once upon a time there lived a king, and he dwelt in a splendid castle high above the enchanted forest. His subjects could not have wished for a better king, so wise and benevolent was his rule.

Many years passed and the king, feeling that he was growing old, began to worry about who should rule after him, for he had no children. However, word had often come to him of strange and wonderful treasures which were said to be hidden in the enchanted forest, and these had aroused his curiosity and now filled his heart with longing. He resolved that a search should be made for these remarkable treasures, so that they might be collected at his castle, where everyone might see them and marvel at them. No sooner had he decided on his plan than he sent heralds throughout the land to announce that whoever should find and lead him to the hiding place of three of these marvelous treasures would succeed to his throne.”

As if that wasn’t enough to make you love the game. The treasures are trees, underneath the trees lie an image of a specific fairy tale.  The image under the tree matches a card.  The object is to travel around the board to get a peek under the trees, and then to match the face-up card to the correct tree.  There are many more nuances and rules to the game, knocking people out, moving to special spots with doubles, etc. but that is the gist.  My son and I can play this game for hours.  It is really fun, and really taxes the memory of this old mama!

I would say this game is best played by boys 7 1/2 and up and girls 6 and up.  Isaiah has finally gotten over that stage where if it’s too complicated he doesn’t want to bother.  If your child doesn’t mind complicated, yet simple rules, go ahead and try it!

I get no compensation whatsoever for this by the way! I just loved this game so much and thought it was so Waldorfy, I had to share!  And if you haven’t read the Grimm Fairy Tales this is the perfect way to introduce them.  All of the tales in this game are completely age appropriate and not at all scary!

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Thank Goodness for Wool and Uggs!

Something I had been missing from our Waldorf days was our morning walks, partly because the weather got cold, and also because we had lost our way… Today was going to be my attempt to bring one more aspect of what I love back to our homeschool day.  (There are more, and I will post about that later.)  Today I decided it was about time we got outside again on a regular basis.  Well, we live not far from Chicago, so you know, it’s not warm here.  Not by a stretch.  Truth be told, I immensely dislike being cold.  Really.  I joke that I get a babysitter just so Isaiah will have someone to go outside with him.

I don’t know exactly what happened.  Maybe something inside of me was whispering, “you need to get outside too” but this morning as I was standing in the backyard with the dogs, I noticed that the air had that really refreshing quality to it.  The wind was blowing in pretty strong gusts, but it was about 30 degrees, so it wasn’t so bad.   It felt a lot like the wind was coming from the lake, which frankly just makes me want to take a deep breath and stay outside.  The sky was pretty gloomy towards the west, but I took only passing notice of it.

I came inside with the dogs, and Isaiah was his regular screaming banshee self.  I had a bit of a headache, so it was hard for me to be tolerant of his rambunctiousness this morning.  I had gently tried to explain that Mommy had a headache, that would last about 5 minutes before he started screaming again.  Now don’t get me wrong, he wasn’t just sitting there screaming, he was a pirate (I think, like I said I had a headache).  He had two swords. a rifle and a pocket-watch and was playing an elaborate imagination game.  Usually I am much more tolerant of this, I mean he was using his imagination, but given the state of my head I needed something to change.  So I said “hey, let’s go for a walk”.  He looked at me like I was crazy, he knows how much I dislike the cold.  “No, I don’t want to.”  Well I know how he operates, so I said OK, and proceeded to make some tea.  Minutes later I had to ask him to settle down again, he said “you know what? let’s go for  a walk.” Bingo!  “Can I bring my sword and my rifle?”  I agreed, anything to get him outside.  We began to really bundle up, no use being uncomfortable, this way we could take a long walk.  He decided he didn’t want to have to carry his sword and rifle, because he was going to take his bike instead.  Well, as long as he bundled up, right?

So, we were prepared to leave, we opened the door.  The minute we stepped outside the flurries started.  “It’s snowing!” Isaiah shouted excitedly.  Yes it was, well what could be nicer than a walk in the snow.  Only, by the time we got a block from our house it looked like this.

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I don’t think I’ve ever been outside, just for fun, when a full-blown blizzard has descended upon our town.  It was pretty cool.  I could have said let’s turn back, but I thought, hey, what’s the worst that can happen?   We’ll get cold?  So we kept on truckin’ Isaiah riding his bike in the deepening snow, and me walking behind him really letting myself enjoy this wonderful example of God’s beauty in nature.  By the time we were about a 1/4 mile from home, I would say visibility was down to about 50ft.  We were at the park, where there is a huge field and running track around the track.  Isaiah was riding ahead of me, and he would get far enough ahead I could barely see him, but knowing there was nowhere for him to go, I just enjoyed.  For me this was a milestone, I didn’t even rush.  In the end, we were gone for about an hour.  By the time we got home, we looked like snowmen ourselves!  We un-bundled, lit a fire in the fireplace, made some hot chocolate and relaxed to some books and a game.  It was such a wonderful way to start our day, to get som of those ants out of his pants, and to help me get re-connected.  I will continue to try and get him outside every morning, and to remind myself how much being outside is good for our souls.

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Next day, after about a foot of snow (and it’s still snowing), Isaiah riding the weighed down Arbor Vitae, like the dragon in “The Land of Long Ago” by Elsa Beskow!

 

Shared this post with Our Seasons of Joy’s Waldorf Wednesday

Learning Math Visually

As a homeschooling mama, one originally rooted in Waldorf, teaching math to a rambunctious visual learner can be daunting.  I began in Waldorf, teaching him the Quality of numbers.

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This was a beautiful idea to me, I enjoyed trying to create a way to touch him with this idea.  Perhaps I should have persisted. Or, perhaps I was correct in knowing that this was not the right way for my boy.

So, we moved on to something more tangible.  I mentioned earlier, that Isaiah is a visual learner.  A very visual learner, and so, I decided to give a program called MathUSee a try.  This turned out to be fairly more successful.  Up until this point,  Isaiah had a great deal of difficulty understanding numbers past 10.  The shear nonsensity of their names made it almost impossible for him to decipher.  Eleven? Twelve?  What do these things mean, he wondered? Even further down the line was the elusive twenty and thirty.  If you let him count un-interrupted he could count to 20 by rote.  However, if you asked him what came after 10? Well that was another story.  Often when rattling off his numbers eleventytwo came after 19.  Because what was 20 anyway?

MathUSee really helped him to understand the “quality” of numbers in a way that was completely comfortable to him.

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Using blocks of different colors, he began to understand the significance of the placement of numbers.  That where a number falls on “decimal street” determines how you say a number.

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The blue bars represent the “10’s” the green blocks represent the “units” or “ones”.  Here he is building the 74.  He is learning that the placement of the 7 is the same as 7 “tens”, the placement of the 4 is the same as 4″units”.

For every number we learn, he is learning the “quality” of that number.  Isaiah started to like math, he began to enjoy “building numbers”.  Of course, every once in a while those blocks became make-shift legos, and math turned into an airfield and landing planes, but that’s OK.  To me that was a sign that he was on over-load and we should come back to it.

Admittedly, MathUSee is not as beautiful as the Waldorf way.  However, I believe now that I have a grasp of MathUSee, I can find a way to blend the two.  Yes it is un-orthodox.  Yet, I still continue to see the beauty in Waldorf every day, and my desire to keep it’s learning style as part of our lives is very strong.  Once I find the best way to reach him, it seems I can back into where we should be with Waldorf.

I read a very inspiring post today by Sheila at Sure as The World.  It was an example of learning the Grade 1: Four Processes.  She has definitely inspired me to go back over my Waldorf curriculum and see how I might link back in the beauty of the story telling to explain the four processes.  Thank you Sheila!  I will let you all know how it goes!

Our Block of Chess or Our Chess Block

Who says chess can’t be a block?  I’ve never read about it on one of my homeschooling sites.  Wait, let me look…nope, even my favorite site Homeschool Share doesn’t have one.  You know every time I read that over I read cheese block!  LOL!IMG_0359

Recently Isaiah has developed an interest in chess.  I was never a chess player, but we have my father’s old chess set in the house.  I know how the pieces move, I know how you win, but I do not know one ounce of the strategy that goes into winning.  I figure that doesn’t matter much, what does matter is that he’s waking up, getting himself ready, setting up the chess set and excited to go!

So I’m liking the idea of chess as our first block of the day for a week.  We are replacing movement, which I think isn’t a bad idea for this boy.  He tends to be hot and cold when it comes to movement.  I figure If I don’t force a circle time or movement time and instead alternate week to week we have a better chance of it not becoming a struggle.  This is a way to make our first block of the day a win-win.  After reading the research , I am happy to alternate movement and chess week to week.

From Johns Hopkins University “It’s not about Kings, Queens, and Rooks, but rather, quadrants and coordinates, thinking strategically and foreseeing consequences. It’s about lines and angles, weighing options and making decisions. Chess might just be the perfect teaching and learning tool.”

“Research shows, there is a strong correlation between learning to play chess and academic achievement. In 2000, a landmark study found that students who received chess instruction scored significantly higher on all measures of academic achievement, including math, spatial analysis, and non-verbal reasoning ability (Smith and Cage, 2000).

IMG_0361While studies have shown chess to have a positive impact on kids in elementary, middle and high school, AF4C targeted second and third graders as the evidence, and certainly our experience, suggests it’s the ideal age. Eight and nine year-old minds and thinking skills are developing rapidly, and chess teaches higher level thinking skills such as the ability to visualize, analyze, and think critically.” (read this article here)

For me the test results are not an issue.  Whatever happens happens, but I can’t deny the strengthening effect that chess has on the way my son uses his mind.  Without forcing him to think like an adult, or teach him formal reasoning, he is learning all of these skills passively.  Just as they point out later in the article, my son originally knew how the pieces moved, but moved them without much thought.  Then after a few days he began to ask, “If I move here, then you can get me right?” he would spend much more time deciding exactly which piece to move where.  He still was operating more on the defensive than the offensive, but I am sure that’s coming.  Funnily enough, he didn’t even seem to care who won, although it often ended in a draw.  Since chess is new to me too, who knows who will be the chess champion before long?!

Mom. I’m feeling mad. I’m going to felt.

Yes, you heard it right. He was feeling mad. That’s been happening a little bit more lately as we’ve been cooped up inside due to the horrendous midwest weather.

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Last week I taught Isaiah how to felt. I tried a couple of months ago. Back when I was so inspired by the Wisconsin Sheep and Wool Festival that I wanted to move to a sheep farm. At the time, he just wasn’t interested. I thought spinning and felting would be something we could enjoy together, but I wasn’t daunted. Even though he showed no interest, I didn’t let my interest wain. I wanted to felt. Needle felting is cathartic, how could it not be? You get to pound a hunk of wool with a needle. A lot. So of course I completely understood Isaiah’s statement, and was very proud of him for identifying a need and finding a constructive way to deal with it. After a few minutes he went from being mad to wanting to felt a pancake. Yes a pancake. I know, I felt birds, gnomes, princesses and even little play men for Isaiah. I never thought of felting a pancake, but hey, who am I to squelch his creativity?

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More about needle felting. There are a ton of great resources on YouTube, I basically taught myself by searching for needle felting tutorials and watching a few. You need some supplies, and I suggest getting decent ones. I picked mine up from the Sheep and Wool Festival from Mielke’s Fiber Arts. Don’t get them from Michaels, their stuff is cheap AND expensive. I think felting is a great project for kids who are responsible enough not to poke themselves, or can handle poking themselves without tears. Because, let’s face it, even I poke myself 🙂 The needles you use for felting are barbed, so that they push the wool down and then lift it up again as it comes out (which is what it does when you stick it in your finger too). The point is you are tangling the fine fibers together so much that eventually what was soft fluffy wool becomes a dense wool object, it is really quite cool, and very satisfying! Don’t be afraid to try it, I think it’s something even the most craft-impaired person can do.

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